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The Bharat Ratna, or the Jewel of India Award is a civilian award given to a person for highest degrees of national service in the fields of art, literary, scientific achievements and public service of the highest order. The award was established by the first President of India, Rajendra Prasad, on January 2, 1954. The golden medal is in the shape of a peepul leaf carrying the image of the Sun and the words 'Bharat Ratna' inscribed in Devanagari script. The reverse side of the medal carries the state emblem and motto. It is attached to a ribbon to be worn around the recipient's neck. The honour has been awarded to forty one persons, fhere were 3 recipients in the year 1954:
1) C. Rajagopalachari
He got the first bharat ratna award in 1954. He was the first Governor General of free India.
2) Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan(1888-1975).
He was the second President of India & the first Vice- President of India.
3) C.V. RamanHe was a noble laureate of India who was awarded the Noble Prize for Physics in the year 1930.
to Bhimsen Joshi in 2008.
The Padma Vibhushan is India's second highest civilian honour, which recognises exceptional and distinguished service to the nation in any field, including government service. It was established on January 2, 1954. The honour has been awarded to 235 persons, from Satyendra Nath Bose and others in 1954 to Justice Dr A S Anand and others in 2008.
The Padma Bhushan award is an Indian civilian decoration established on January 2, 1954 by the President of India. It stands third in the hierarchy of civilian awards, after the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan. It is awarded to recognize distinguished service of a high order to the nation, in any field. The honour has been awarded to 1003 persons from 1954 to 2008.
The Padma Shri is an award given by the Government of India generally to Indian citizens to recognize their distinguished contribution in various spheres of activity including arts, education, industry, literature, science, sports, social service and public life. It stands fourth in the hierarchy of civilian awards. On the bronze medal, inscribed in white gold are the words 'Padma' and 'Shri', in Devanagari, above a lotus. So far, 2059 people have received the award.
Dadasaheb Phalke Award
The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is an annual award given by the Indian government for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema. It was instituted in 1969, the birth centenary year of Dadasaheb Phalke, who is considered as the father of Indian cinema. This award is given along with the National Film Awards. The first awardee was Devika Rani for the year 1969and the latest, Tapan Sinha for the year 2006.
Military gallantry awards
Param Vir Chakra
The Param Vir Chakra (the 'bravest of the brave' medal) is India's highest military decoration awarded for the highest degree of valour or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy. This war time gallantry award was established on 26 January 1950, by the President of India. It can be awarded to officers or enlisted personnel from all branches of the Indian military, posthumously. It has been awarded to 21 persons, the first being Major Som Nath Sharma for the year 1947 and the latest, Captain Vikram Batra for the year 1999.
The Ashoka Chakra is the peace time equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for the most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice other than in the face of the enemy, i.e., in the battlefield. It may be awarded either to military or civilian personnel. The medal was originally established on 4 January 1952 as the Ashoka Chakra, Class I as the first step of a three-class sequence of non-combatant bravery decorations.
Maha Vira Chakra
The Maha Vira Chakra (the great hero award) is the second highest military decoration in India and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. It may be awarded posthumously. More than 155 acts of bravery and selfless courage have been recognized since the inception of the medal. The maximum number of this award given in a single conflict was in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, when eleven were given to the Indian Air Force.
The Vira Chakra is an Indian gallantry award presented for acts of bravery in the battlefield. It is third in precedence in the war time gallantry awards.
Kirti Chakra is an Indian gallantry award given for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. It is the peacetime equivalent of the Maha Vir Chakra. It is second in order of precedence of peacetime gallantry awards. Before 1967, the award was known as the Ashoka Chakra, Class II.
The Shaurya Chakra is peace time equivalent of the Vir Chakra, and awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice while not engaged in direct action with the enemy. It is generally awarded for Counter-Insurgency operations & actions against the enemy during peace-time. It was established as the Ashoka Chakra, Class III by the President of India on 4 January 1952. The statutes were revised and the decoration was renamed on 27 January 1967.
May 25, 2010