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July 31, 2013

What is - Asphyxia in Suicide cases & Menthol Cigarette?

Asphyxia or asphyxiation (without heartbeat") is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from being unable to breathe normally. 
This occurs in suicide cases by hanging and a confirmation in autopsy report tells the case is suicide.

Menthol Cigarette: A menthol cigarette is a cigarette flavored with the compound menthol, a substance which triggers the cold-sensitive nerves in the skin without actually providing a drop in temperature.
Menthol cigarettes have also been shown to inhibit nicotine metabolism, causing "systemic enhancement in exposure to nicotin.

Menthol cigarettes pose a public health risk above that seen with non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol smokers show greater signs of nicotine dependence and are less likely to successfully quit smoking.

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Procedure For Passing Bills in Indian Parliament

Procedure For Passing Ordinary Bills: Any Bill, except a Money Bill, is called an Ordinary Bill. The primary function of the Parliament is law-making. The following procedure is followed for passing an Ordinary Bill.

1. First Reading of the Bill: The first stage of legislation is the introduction of a B ill. It may be introduced either by a Minister or by a private member. If a private member introduces a Bill he must give notice of his intention to the Speaker. If any member opposes the introduction of the Bill, it is decided by the majority of the vote. Every Bill that is adopted in the House has to be published in the Gazette. Usually, at the time of introduction of a Bill there is no debate.

2. Second Reading of the Bill:At this stage the Bill may be
a. taken into consideration, or
b. circulated for the purpose of eliciting public opinion, or
c. it may be referred to a Select Committee of the House,
d. to Joint Committee of both the Houses.
  • Committee Stage: A specially important measure usually goes to a Select Committee or Joint Committee which is expected to give its report within a specified period.
  • Report Stage : After submission of the report by the committee, Members can send in their amendments to the different provisions of the Bill.
  • Each clause is taken up by the House and amendments are moved, discussed and disposed of. 
  • When the clause by clause consideration is over and every clause is voted, the second reading of the Bill is over.
3. Third Reading of the Bill:

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Part6 - Computer Awareness MCQ and Bits for APPSC and BANK PO exams

Q.
A vision statement is .....

1
not required for established companies

2
not required due to competition

3
not required as no one understands them

4
a long term inspiration


Ans: 4

Q.
Non-product selling means .....

1
selling variety of products

2
selling only one product

3
selling seasonal products

4
selling services


Ans: 4

Q.
Marketing is a function undertaken by ......

1
All DSA's

2
All front-office staff

3
Whole organization

4
All of these


Ans: 4

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July 30, 2013

MID DAY MEAL SCHEME IN ANDHRA PRADESH

Introduction:
The   Government   of   Andhra   Pradesh   introduced   the   Mid   Day   Meal Programme in 1982 experimentally in all the Abhyudaya Pradhamika Patasalalu (Model  Schools). Due  to  certain  constraints  like  inadequate  finances,  this programme could not be sustained.
•    Government of India launched the Scheme again in January, 2003 for the children studying in Primary Schools (Classes I to V)
•    Extended to the children studying in Upper Primary Schools (Classes VI to VIII) in October, 2008
•    Extended to the children studying in High Schools (Classes IX & X) also in October, 2008 with 100% state funds
•    Further extended to the children studying in Special Schools under NCLP from the academic year of 2010-11

OBJECTIVES
  • To avoid classroom hunger
  • To increase school enrolment
  • To increase school attendance
  • To reduce gender gap
  •  To foster social equality
  •  To address malnutrition
  • To promote community participation
  • Women empowerment

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July 29, 2013

Antyodaya Anna Yojana scheme in Andhra Pradesh

Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) is for poorest families. Launched by NDA government in December 2000.
Objective: Food Security

Beneficiaries: look out for the 'poorest of the poor'
  • Allocation of foodgrains (rice & wheat) to these AAY families is made @ 35 kg per family per month at a highly subsidized Central Issue Price (CIP) of Rs.2 per kg for wheat and Rs.3 per kg for rice.
  • The scale of issue that was initially 25 kg per family per month has been increased to 35 kg per family per month with effect from 1st April, 2002.
  • On whole India there are 2.43 crore Antyodaya Anna Yojna beneficiary households will continue to get their quota of 35 kg grains a month under the TPDS.
  • Coverage under this scheme has been expanded thrice since then i.e. during 2003-04, 2004-05 and 2005-06 covering additional 50 lakh households each time
  • Thus the total coverage under AAY was raised to 2.50 crore AAY families. The identification of AAY families within the target of AAY families allocated to each State/UT is the responsibility of concerned State/UT Government.
  • Upto March, 2013, they have reported issuance of AAY ration cards to 2.43 crore AAY families

Eligibility criteria for AAY :

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Quiz-8- General Studies-MCQs Bits Bank PO Study Material

1.  Which or ganization is responsible for empowering Micro, Small and Medium enterprises in India?
1) RBI 2) NABARD
3) SIDBI        4) SEBI 5) EXIM Bank
 2. Muhammad Yunus is associated with which of the following concepts in the field of Banking?
1) Retail banking
2) Internet banking
3) Micro credit
4) CBS 5) RTGS

3. Which country won the 34th edition of the Men's Hockey Champions Trophy in Melbourne in December 2012?
1) Australia     2) Netherlands 3) Pakistan      4) India
5) Germany

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MERS Virus - The new deadly virus of International Concern!

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) - the mysterious new virus killing people in the Middle East and Europe. MERS-CoV was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012 and since then, cases were reported from countries such as U.K., Jordan, France, and Tunisia.

It first surfaced last year as "human betacoronavirus 2c EMC", but the suffixes "2c England-Qatar, "2C Jordan-N3", "England 1" have also appeared and many scientists have resorted to "novel coronavirus" - new crown-shaped virus - instead.

The infection has now emerged as a serious cause for concern, especially in India, as thousands are set to travel to Saudi Arabia in the coming days for Umrah and Haj. Emerging evidence suggests Saudi Arabia as the apparent geographic hub of the novel corona virus.

Spread methods:

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India Partners in prestigious TMT Telescope

Thirty Metre Telescope(TMT)
India time, the Master Partnership Agreement (MPA) for the construction of the $1.5-billion Thirty Metre Telescope (TMT), what would be the world’s largest optical and infrared telescope, was signed by the five partner countries —
  1.  Canada,
  2. China,
  3. India,
  4. Japan and
  5. the U.S.

At — in Hawai. The telescope will be located just below the summit at Mauna Kea at a height of 4,050 m. The construction is expected to begin next year and the telescope is expected to become operational in 2022. Its large collecting area makes it 81 times more sensitive (measure of the faintest signal that it can detect) than the current largest ground-based telescopes.
‘India designing mirror coating system’ for TMT.
At present, India has three 2 m class optical-IR telescopes and a 3.6 m telescope waiting to be commissioned.

Some important Physics Institutes and places important in civil services view point:

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July 26, 2013

Quiz 9- General Studies Questions useful for APPSC & Bank PO Exams

1.M.S.Raghavan took chaige as the Chairman and Managing Dire¬ctor of which of the following public sector banks in July 2013?
1)            Oriental Bank of Commerce
2)            Canara bank 3) Andhra Bank
4)            Indian Bank 5) IDBI Bank

2.Andy Murray became the first British man to win the Wimbledon singles title since 1936. Whom did he defeat in the final on July 7th 2013?
1)            Juan Martin del Fotro (Argentina)
2)            Novak Djokovic (Serbia)
3)            Jerzy Janowicz (Poland)
4)            Roger Federer (Switzerland)
5)            Rafael Nadal (Spain)

3.Who is the 2013 Wimbledon women's singles champion? (This is her first Grand Slam title)
1)            Sabine Lisicki (Germany)
2)            Agnieszka Radwanska (Poland)
3)            Marion Bartoli (France)
4)            Kirsten Flipkens (Belgium)
5)            Serena Williams (DSA)

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July 25, 2013

Question Hour in Indian Parliament

  • The first hour of every sitting of Lok Sabha is called the Question hour. 
  • Asking of questions in Parliament is the free and unfettered right of members.
  • It is during the Question hour that they may ask questions on different aspects of administration and Government policy in the national as well as international spheres. 
  • Every Minister whose turn it is to answer to questions has to stand up and answer for his Ministry's acts of omission or commission. 
Questions are of three types -

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Observers (Engineering) in AP Research Labs (Exam Held on 23-06-2013) - General Studies Papers Solved APPSC

Observers (Engineering) in AP Research Labs (Exam Held on 23-06-2013) - General Studies Papers Solved
Observers (Engineering) in AP Research Labs (Exam Held on 23-06-2013) - General Studies Papers Solved

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July 23, 2013

Rise and Fall of Maratha Empire

Maratha Kingdom: In 18th century, Maratha kingdom was the most powerful one in India. But they were divided into many different states under different chiefs. The most important dynasties were :
  • Gaekwad of Baroda
  • Raghuji Bhonsle of Nagpur,
  • Malhar Rao Holkar of Indore and
  • Ranaji Scindia of Gwalior.

Peshwa Baji Rao organized them into one union known as the confederacy and allowed them to levy the taxes and to enjoy the maximum autonomy. But they had to pay the share of the state income and work under the Peshwa and are also required to join the Peshwa in military campaign against the common enemy.

After the death of Peshwa Baji Rao in 1740 A.D., his son, Balaji Baji Rao became the Peshwa. He was just 18 years old at that time. He also followed the footsteps of his father and extended the Empire further in all the directions. During his reign, Maratha's glory and prestige reached its heights.

Rise of Marathas:

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July 22, 2013

APPSC Latest news on Group 1 Group 2 Notification 2014 - News Dated: 22 July 2013





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Group 1, Group 2 Notifications to be issued in August?

APPSC Notifications for Various Government Jobs to be issued in August
(latest News on APPSC Group 1 Notification)
Election code of Panchayat elections is going to be ended on July 31.  APPSC is planning to issue notifications for the vacancies available after July 31.  There is also chance that Group 1 and Group 2 exam notifications will also be issued for limited number of vacancies before Municipal elections notifications in AP is issued.

APPSC is making all arrangements to issue notifications for recruitment of various posts in government departments in August this year.  Finance department has already given approval for filling of twelve thousand posts and notifications for these posts is expected to be issued in August.  APPSC scheduled to release notifications various posts by the end of this month but in the wake of implementation of election code of Panchayat elections, notifications were not released.

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July 21, 2013

Pioglitazone - Why it is banned in India 2013???

Pioglitazone — an oral anti-diabetic drug which was banned on June 18 2013
Why is it banned?
The Ministry banned piogiltazone based on a letter sent in January to the Drug Control General of India (DCGI) by the Chennai-based diabetologist Dr. V. Mohan, chairman of Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre. His letter was based on his observation of eight bladder cancer cases in patients taking the drug. 
The ministry and Drugs Controller General of India certainly have the power to ban any drug under Section 26-A of the Drugs & Cosmetic Act if they are satisfied that the use of any drug is likely to involve risk to human beings or that drug does not have the therapeutic value claimed for it or contains ingredients in such a quantity for which there is no therapeutic rationale.
The drug has been banned in Germany and France, but other countries in Europe and the US sell the drug with a risk warning. In India, the drug has been in the market for over a decade and had no reports of adverse drug reactions reported. Diabetologists from the government and corporate hospitals are of the view that pioglitazone is a safe drug for type II diabetes and it also reduces triglycerides and increase HDL levels in patients.
At present, doctors report side-effects to companies, who in turn submit the reports to the drug regulator. But this does not show the entire picture, as there could be under-reporting, or there may not be details of where the incident occurred.

Though 35 lakh patients are estimated to be on pioglitazone, there is little locally generated data to swing the debate for or against its use. A good fall-out though, is that doctors across the country are awakened to the reality of drugs, their side-effects and the need for surveillance, says a local doctor.

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Impact on pending Bills and Rajya Sabha - on Dissolution of Lok Sabha

On dissolution of Loksabha
  • Bills originating in Rajya Sabha which are still pending in that House do not lapse.
  • Bills originating in Rajya Sabha which having been passed by the House and send to Lok Sabha and pending there lapse on the dissolution of Lok Sabha. i.e Bill becomes invalid.
  • Bills originating in Lok Sabha which having been passed by that House and transmitted to Rajya Sabha and still pending there on the date of dissolution of Lok Sabha, lapse.
  • Bills originating in Rajya Sabha and returned to that House by Lok Sabha with amendments and still pending there on the date of its dissolution, lapse.
  • A Bill upon which the Houses have disagreed and the President has notified his intention to summon a Joint Sitting of the Houses to consider the Bill prior to dissolution does not lapse on dissolution.

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Committees of Rajya Sabha

Parliamentary Committees of the Rajya Sabha may be categorized as ad hoc Committees and Standing Committees.

Ad hoc Committees are those Committees which may be constituted by the House or by the Chairman or by the Presiding Officers of both Houses jointly to consider and report on specific matters. Such Committees become functus officio(having discharged an office i.e. they expire) as soon as they complete their work. 
These Committees may be divided into two categories:

  • Select/Joint Committees on Bills constituted by the House(s) on specific motion to consider and report on Bills; and
  • Committees which are constituted from time to time to enquire into and report on specific subjects.
Standing Committees are permanent Committees of Rajya Sabha.

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ELEMENTS OF WEATHER

 Temperature is  defined as the degree of hotness of air at a particular place. Generally the Maximum and the Minimum Temperature of a place is noted.
  • Highest temperature noted during a day is called Maximum Temperature while lowest temperature noted during a day is called Minimum Temperature. The average of daily Maximum and Minimum temperature is called the Daily Mean Temperature.
  • For finding out the maximum and the minimum temperature of air the weather instrument that is used is called Six's Thermometer. Temperature is measured in degrees of Celsius or Fahrenheit.
Air Pressure: The air pressure or atmospheric pressure is the weight of the vertical column of the air at a particular place.
  •  It is measured by  Aneroid Barometer and the units -Millibars.
  • Tempertaure is inversely proportional to Pressure.
Precipitation:

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ANNAPURNA SCHEME of Andhra Pradesh

Objective :  Food Security

Senior citizens of 65 years of age or above who though eligible for old age pension under the National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS) but are not getting the pension, are covered and 10 kgs. of food grains per person per month are supplied free of cost under the scheme.

Annapurna Scheme” is being implemented since May 2000 in Andhra Pradesh.
  • A quantity of 10 Kgs. of food grains (rice) is provided per month free of cost to the beneficiaries covered under the scheme.
  • The beneficiaries were identified during Grama Sabha
  • Male or female should be 65years or above.
  • The applicant should be a “destitute” in the sense of having little or no regular means of subsistence from his/her own source of income or through financial support from family members or other sources.
  • Funds are currently released to the State Departments of Food & Civil Supplies (F&CS;) in one instalment This Department then ties up with the Food Corporation of India (FCI), to release foodgrains districtwise on payment of the cost of Foodgrains at CIP rates directly to the FCI offices.

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Part 5-Computer Awareness - MCQ and Bits for APPSC and BANK PO exams

 1. A (n) program is one that is ready to run and does not need to be altered in any way.
1)            Interpreter   2) High-level           
3)            Compiler     4) COBOL 5) Executable
2. Which of the following is true about URL?
1)            It is a computer program
2)            It is a type of Programming object
3)            It is the address of a document or page on the World Wide Web
4)            It is an acronym for Unlimited Resources for Listening
5)            It is a piece of hardware
3. Universal Product Code (UPC) is a _
 1) Scanner 2) Hardware Equipment
3) Antivirus 4) Graphics Adapter 5) Barcode system

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July 20, 2013

Conditions in Andhra before Satavahanas

Aryanization of the Andhra Country and its Conditions in the Pre-Mauryan and Mauryan Periods:
Prior  to  satavahanas,   during the  6th  and  5th  centuries  B.C.,  northern  India  was  under  the settled  government  of  the  Sisunaga  and  Haryanka  rulers- The two  famous  reformist  faiths.  Buddhism   and  Jainism  came  to be founded   during  the  same  period. 
 In   Andhra,  the  Nagas who  were  of  a  non-Aryan  stock  were  having   their republican  states.    Some  other  semi-civilised   races   also  in- habited  the  thick  jungle  regions  to the  south  of the  Vindhyas, known  for  a  long  time  as  Dandakaranya.    It was  during  this period  that  the  Aryans  from  the  north  were  penetrating  into this Dandaka area. The  coming  of the Aryans  into Deccan  was peaceful.  The progress    of  the   'Aryanisation'  is    reflected  in   literature  and legend.   
 It  seems  the Vedic   Rishis,   in  quest  of  peace   and  loneliness,  ventured  to enter Dandaka  forest  to  establish  hermitages  on the  banks of rivers  in  the  thick  of  the  forests.    The  local  inhabitants  who were   described   by   the   Aryans  as 'Asuras  and Rakshasas' might have  raided  their  settlements,  destroying  their  sacrifices and interrupting  their penance.   The  memory  of these  episodes is  preserved  in  tradition  regarding  the  advent  of Agastya  into the  South.    The  Ramayana  when  purged of all exaggerations, interpolations  and  anachronisms,   proves  the  central  fact  that Rama  championed  the  cause  of  Aryan  culture fighting  against the  Asuras,  thus  giving  an  impetus   to  the  spread  of  Aryan ideals  and  institutions  in  the  Deccan.

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APPSC Group 1 Syllabus in Telugu Medium 2013 Language

You can download Appsc group 1 syllabus telugu 2013 in pdf format from below. This blog also has much Group 1 Mains material which are divided under Paper wise for the users. Any doubts regarding books for Group 1 Mains can be cleared if the questions are posted in the comments section below.



>>Direct Download PDF Link Here: Download <<<

Group 1 is the highest cadre recruited by APPSC.
  1. The various posts which come under APPSC Group 1, their pay scale, reservation details and education qualification required for various posts under Group 1 should be read if aspirant is just beginner in preparation to the exam. (Various Posts, Eligibility & Pay scale to different Group 1 Cadre Posts)
  2. This exam is a three stage exams( Download Pattern and Syllabus of Group 1 from here).
  3. Dont ignore the reference books to be read for APPSC Group 1, leaving it will end you no where.Reference books for APPSC Group 1 Exams)
  4. Students often ask about of Group 1 prelims, as clearing prelims is important stage, aspirants should know cutoff's of various years Group 1 (APPSC Group 1 Exam Cutoff Marks Analysis)
  5. Many students often confuse in which language to be written in Mains exam, if you are in such dilemma you should definitely read (In which language APPSC Group 1 Mains can be written?)
  6. You Might be questioning yourself as how much score will be needed to successfully cross the mains stage and appear for Group 1 Mains Interview. (Group 1 Mains Marks Analysis!)

Aspirants often confuse with a question- How should I start my preparation for Group 1???

Group 2 is the second highest cadre. Its a two stage exam for Executive Posts & One stage Exam for Non -Executive Posts. 


Last but not least, Some important preparation tips which aspirants should keep in mind while preparing for civil service exams.

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July 19, 2013

500+ Chemistry- Bits Material in Telugu Medium(Part-5)

Chemistry- Bits useful fro APPSC TSPSC Group 1 Group 2 Exams 
Keywords: group 2 telugu medium material, appsc material, telugu study material,  appsc material download  Appsc group 1 prelims material, appsc group 1 prelims telugu material download, appsc group 4 telugu medium material

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500+ Physics- Bits Material in Telugu Medium for APPSC (Part 4)

Physics- Bits Material in Telugu Medium useful fro APPSC Group 1 Group 2 Exams
Keywords: group 2 telugu medium material, appsc material, telugu study material,  appsc material download  appsc group 1 prelims material, appsc group 1 prelims telugu material download, appsc group 4 telugu medium material.

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700+ Biology - Bits Material in Telugu Medium

APPSC Notification, APPSC Material, APPSC TSPSC Group 1 Notification 2014, APPSC Group 2 Notification 2014, APPSC General Studies Material, APPSC Group 1 Mains Material, Appsc material in Telugu Medium, Appsc material in Telugu, Appsc material in Telugu Medium, Biology - Bits Material in Telugu Medium useful fro APPSC Group 1 Group 2 Exams.

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July 18, 2013

National Anaemia Prevention Programme 2013 in India

Other name: Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) Programme.
Launch Date:  17/07/2013 by Union Government in Karanataka.
Objective: The scheme aimed at reducing the prevalence and severity of anaemia among the adolescent population.
Need of the programme:
  • The Union government’s initiative to control anaemia comes in with the report of National Health and Family Welfare Survey III and the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau study which has reported the  prevalence of anaemia among adolescents with a haemoglobin value of  under 12 grams percentage in girls and haemoglobin value of under 13 grams percentage in boys. Anaemia is seen a serious public issue as around 74 per cent of the population have their haemoglobin level less than the normal level.
  • It is estimated that over 56 per cent of the adolescent girls and 30 per cent of the boys in the same age group of 10 to 19 years are anaemic in India.
  • Almost 50 per cent of nutritional deficiency-related anaemia is Iron Deficiency Anaemia which is a result of under-nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron
Impact of Anaemia:

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July 17, 2013

Planet Neptune - know its facts

Neptune — the blue coloured eighth planet of the solar system, will this year complete its first revolution (in 2011) of the sun since its discovery in 1846.
Neptune has 14 satellites, and a thin ring system that was discovered in 1984. The planet’s orbit is nearly circular.
It’s atmosphere is dominantly hydrogen (80 per cent), with helium (19 per cent) and methane (1 per cent), and a very small admixture of other compounds. 
The average temperature is — 235degrees C. It is 38.87 times bigger and 17.132 times more massive than the Earth.
Neptune is also the first planet found by mathematical prediction rather than by observation. Unexplained deviations in the orbit of the planet Uranus, ever since its accidental discovery on March 13, 1781 by William Herschel, led astronomers to believe that there was some unknown body farther out.

The planet was discovered on September 23, 1846 by Johann Galle and Heinrich d’Arrest from Berlin Observatory very near the predicted position.

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Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) Mission -Discovers melting of Snow Glaciers

The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center, has been making detailed measurements of Earth's gravity field since its launch in March 2002.
Gravity is determined by mass. By measuring gravity, GRACE shows how mass is distributed around the planet and how it varies over time. Data from the GRACE satellites is an important tool for studying Earth's ocean, geology, and climate.
Scientists have warned that the measurements gathered since 2002 by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (Grace) flying in space are still too short—term for accurate predictions of how much ice will be lost in the coming decades, and therefore how rapidly sea levels will rise.
The ice sheets covering Antarctica and Greenland contain about 99.5 per cent of the Earth’s glacier ice which would raise global sea level by some 63m if it were to melt completely.
A rapid acceleration in the melting of Antarctic and Greenland glacier ice, amounting to around 300 billion tonnes a year, has been detected by a satellite over the past decade.

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What is oxilofrine? - Which was tested positive for doping!

Tyson Gay and Asafa Powell, the two fastest sprinters in the world this year, have both tested positive for the banned amphetamine oxilofrine. 
What is oxilofrine?
Oxilofrine is a stimulant drug of the amphetamine class that was developed and used to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) in people who do not respond to conventional treatment. Oxilofrine is the prescription name for methylsynephrine, hydroxyephrine, and oxyephrine. It is not widely used in the UK and is not a licensed drug in the US. Some companies use oxilofrine, in the form of synephrine, in “sports nutritional supplements” as it is thought to allow people to enhance fat-burning and lose weight. Synephrine is present as a natural component of Citrus aurantium, otherwise known as “bitter orange”, but it can also be synthesised artificially or extracted from plant sources and purified.
What are its effects?
Oxilofrine is thought to give a sporting edge by increasing the production of adrenaline, so boosting exercise endurance, focus, alertness and heart rate, and increasing oxygenation of the blood.
Is it dangerous?

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Overview of APPSC Group 1 Exam in Telugu Language

Overview of APPSC Group 1 Exam in Telugu Language

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Astronomers discover 14th new moon of Neptune

The Hubble space telescope has found a new moon orbiting Neptune, the 14th known to be circling the blue-green planet.
The new moon, Neptune’s tiniest at just 19.3 km across, is designated S/2004 N 1 is located between Larissa and Proteus. It orbits Neptune in 23 hours.
It even escaped detection by NASA’s Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew past Neptune in 1989 and surveyed the planet’s system of moons and rings.

Neptune's largest moon, Triton, was discovered in 1846, just days after the planet itself was found. Nereid, Neptune's third largest moon was found in 1949.
Astronomers discover 14th new moon of Neptune

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July 16, 2013

Early Andhra History-Sources of History of Andhras till 1565 AD

It  is  a  fact  that  we  have  no ancient  or  medieval  literature  created  in  Andhra  which  can be classified  as truly  historical.   So  it is  but natural  one  has to  depend  heavily  on  'Primary  source  material  of  incidental nature,  created    not  for   the  purpose    of  communicating  the history  of  contemporary  times  chronologically  set  forth,   but to record events and impressions for political, legal and religious purposes  like  the  epigraphs  of  medieval  times,  the  quasi- historical  literary  works and  so forth'.
Just like ancient Indian history, the history of the Andhras is  still  in  the  formative  stage.    Though  the  available  source material is vast, it is incomplete and at the same time diverse in  nature  and variety.    In the  last 70  years,  yeomen  service was rendered by eminent scholars and organisations in recovering  the records  of the  past with  sustained effort  and  in  reconstructing  the  history  of  the Andhras  with  judicious  nature. Of course, the work  is still  going on.
The source material for the writing of ancient and medieval Andhra history can conveniently be classified under
 (i)  archaeology  including  epigraphs  and  numismatics  apart  from  monuments  and  other  ancient  relics, 
(ii)  literature,   native  as  well as foreign,  and 
(iii)  foreign  notices.

 ARCHAEOLOGICAL  SOURCES.

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Understanding Some Important Terms while preparing for Indian Constitution

Majority: Majority means one (or more) over half. Example:If there are 20 representatives, then 11 or more must agree in order to pass a law. The larger group of politicians is known as majority. The smaller group is known as minority. In a two-third majority, if there are 300 members then 200 and not 151 would be considered.

Resolution: Majority of the House expressing its opinion on a matter of public interest.

Dissolution: "Dissolution" means the end of the life of the House itself and calls for a fresh election.
"Prorogation" means termination of a session.

"Adjournment" postpones the further transaction of business for a few hours, days, or weeks.

Recess: The period between the prorogation of Parliament and its reassembly in a new session is termed "recess".

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Quantitative Aptitude for UPSC CSAT, Bank PO, SSC CGL Exams

Mastering quantitative aptitude is important task and this topic in various competitive exams like APPSC and Bank PO Exams is given more weightage, so it needs a focused strategy. 
  • As much as candidate practice; his/her speed, accuracy and time limit to solve a particular  section will increase day by day.
  • The right understanding of the problem can  help the aspirants to sail through this section. 
This topic is useful for quantitative aptitude for competitive examinations, quantitative aptitude questions, quantitative aptitude for cat, quantitative aptitude r s agarwal, aptitude question and answers, aptitude shortcuts, aptitude test formulae's, bank po aptitude questions, bank po material pdf, bank po material download, bank po study material, bank po ebooks, bank po math questions tricks shortcuts solved papers

 Study Materials for  APPSC and  Bank Clerical, Bank PO, SSC Exams : Topics Arithmetic/Numerical Ability Consist of 
Aptitude

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Computer Awareness for APPSC and Bank PO Exams - Part 3

1.The p art o f a computer that coordinates all its functions is called      
a)            ROM program
b)            System Board
c)            Arithmetic logic unit
d)            Control unit e) None
2.A computer cannot boot if it does not have the            
a)            Compiler b) Loader
c)            Operating System
d)            Assembler e) None
3.Any data or instructions entered into the memory of a computer are considered        
a)            Storage                b) Output
c)            Input     d) Information
e)            None of these
4.A right click on the desktop itself will?
a)            Open the display properties dialogue box

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Computer Basics - must read for beginners - helpful for APPSC and Bank PO Exams

INTRODUCTION

Definition : A Computer is an electronic device that can perform activities that involve Mathematical, Logical and graphical manipulations. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.

It performs the following three operations in sequence.

 

1.   It receives data & instructions from the input device.

 

2.   Processes the data as per instructions.

 

3.   Provides the result (output) in a desired form.

 

Data :  It is the collection of raw facts, figures & symbols.

 

Ex :  Names of students and their marks in different subjects listed in random order.

 

Information :  It is the data that is processed & presented in an organized manner.

 

Ex : When the names of students are arranged  in alphabetical order, total and average marks are calculated & presented in a tabular form, it is information.

Program Set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task.

 

Advantages of computers :

 

1.   High speed : Computers have the ability to perform routine tasks at a greater speed than human beings. They can perform millions of calculations in seconds.

2.   Accuracy : Computers are used to perform tasks in a way that ensures accuracy.

 

3.   Storage : Computers can store large amount of information. Any item of data or any instruction stored in the memory can be retrieved by the computer at lightning speeds.

4.   Automation : Computers can be instructed to perform complex tasks automatically ( which increases the productivity).

5.   Diligence : Computers can perform the same task repeatedly & with the same accuracy without getting tired.

6.   Versatility : Computers are flexible to perform both simple and complex tasks.

 

7.   Cost effectiveness : Computers reduce the amount of paper work and human effort, thereby reducing costs.

Limitations of computers :

1.   Computers need clear & complete instructions to perform a task accurately. If the instructions are not clear & complete, the computer will not produce the required result.

 

2.   Computers cannot think.

 

3.   Computers cannot learn by experience.

 

Generations of computers :

Generation

Component used

First Generation

(1946-1954 )

Vacuum tubes

Second Generation

(1955-1965)

Transistors

Third Generation

(1968-1975 )

Integrated Circuits (IC)

Fourth Generation

( 1976-1980)

Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits

(VLSI)

Fifth Generation

(1980 till today )

Ultra Scale Integrated Circuits (ULSI)

Micro  Processor (SILICON CHIP)

ANATOMY OF COMPUTERS

 

The computer system consists of three units:

 

1.   Input device    2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)                   3. Output device

 

 

   Unit                                                Function

1.Input  device                               :    Reads information from input media and enters to the computer in a coded form

 

2.CPU

 

(a) Memory unit                          :    Stores program and data

 

(b) Arithmetic Logic unit            :    Performs arithmetic and logical functions

 

(c) Control Unit                           :    Interprets prograinstructions and controls the input and output devices

3. Output device                           :    decodes information and presents it to the user

 

 Central Processing Unit: It is the part of the computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program. It is the unit that reads and executes program instructions. Hence it is known as the

brain‖ of the computer. The CPU consists of storage or memory unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

 

and control unit.

 

 (a). Memory Unit: It is also known as the primary storage or main memory. It stores data, program instructions, internal   results and final output temporarily before it is sent to an appropriate output device. It  consists of  thousands of cells called storage locations‖.   These cells activate with off-on‖ or binary digits(0,1) mechanism.  Thus a character either a letter or numerical digit is stored as a string of (0,1) Binary digits ( BITS).  These bits are used to store instructions and data by their combinations.

 (b)  Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU) It is the unit where all   Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction etc.) and logical functions such as true or false, male or female are performed.  Once data are fed into the main memory from input devices, they are held and transferred as needed to ALU where

processing takes place.  No process occurs in primary storage. Intermediate generated results in ALU are temporarily placed in memory until needed at later time. Data may move from primary memory to

 

ALU and  back again to storage many times before the process is finalized.

  (c).Control Unit  :     It acts as a central nervous system and ensures that the information is stored correctly and the program instructions are followed in proper sequence as well as the data are selected from the memory as necessary.  It also coordinates all the input and output devices of a system .

Input Devices

 

Devices used to provide data and instructions to the computer are called Input devices. Some important input devices are

Key board,  MouseScanner,  MICR,  Web camera,  Microphone etc.

 

1.   Keyboard: The Key board is used for typing text into the computer. It is also known as standard Input device. A computer keyboard is similar to that of a type writer with additional keys. The most commonly available computer keyboard has 104 keys.

 

There are different types of keys on the keyboard. The keys are categorized as :

 

·    Alphanumeric keys , including letters & numbers.

 

·    Punctuation keys, such as colon (:), semicolon (;) Question mark (?), Single & double quotes

 

·    Special keys such as arrow keys, control keys, function keys (F1 to F12), HOME, END etc.

 

2 Mouse:    It is a device that controls the movement of the cursor on a monitor. A mouse will have 2 buttons on its top. The left button is the most frequently used button. There will be a wheel between the left and right buttons. This wheel enables us to smoothly scroll through screens of information. As we move the mouse, the pointer on the monitor moves in the same direction. Optical mouse is another advanced pointing device that uses a light emitting component instead of the mouse ball. Mouse cannot be used for entering the data. It is only useful to select the options on the screen.

3. Scanner:It is an input device that can read text or illustrations printed on paper and translate into digital form. The main advantage of these scanners is that the data need not be entered separately

resulting in saving lot of time.

 

Scanners are of two types: i) optical scanners      ii) MICR

 

i)  Optical scanners:

 

a. Optical character Recognition(OCR): In this, characters are read with the help of a light. This is used in office atomization, documentation in library etc.

b. Optical mark recognition(OMR): It is a technology where an OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark such as a pencil mark. OMR is used in tests such as aptitude tests.

c. Optical barcode recognition(OBCR): Barcode readers are photoelectric scanners that read the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks printed on product containers. This is used in super markets, book shops etc.

ii. MICR: This is widely used in banks to process the cheques. This allows the computer to recognize characters printed using magnetic ink.

4. Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR):   : It is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of the cheques. MICR characters ( cheque No., Acc.No.etc) are printed  in  special  ink  usually containing  iron  oxide. When  a document  that contains the ink needs to be read, it passes through a machine which magnetizes the ink and there will be a reader sorter unit which translates the magnetic information into characters. MICR provides a secure, high speed of scanning and processing information. It scans about 2600 cheques/min.

 

Output devices

 

 

Any device that is capable of representing information on a computer is called an Output device. Output devices receive information from the CPU and  present it to the user in the desired form.

 

Some important Output devices are : Monitor,  Printer

 

 1 .Terminal/Monitor: It is similar to TV screen- either a monochrome (black & white) or colour and it displays the output.  It is also referred as Visual  Display Unit(VDU).  Several types of monitors are in use.  Some of them are Colour Graphic  Adapter(CGA),  Enhanced Graphics Adaptor(EGA) , Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) and Super Video Graphics  Adapter (SVGA).

The screen sizes differ from system to system.  The standard size is 24 lines by 80 characters. Most systems have provision for scrolling which helps in moving the text vertically or horizontally on the screen.

2 . Printer: A printer is used to transfer data from a computer onto paper. The paper copy obtained

 

from a printer is often referred as ―printout‖.  The different printers and their speeds are as follows:

 

S. No.

Type

Mode of Printing

Speed

1

Dot – Matrix

 

printer

Prints the character in dotted pattern

 

through printer ribbon using either 24 pin or 9 pin

200/300 to 700

 

CPS

2

Ink Jet printer

Work by spraying ionized ink

Slow, 90 CPS

3

Laser printer

Also called page printer. Uses laser

 

beam to produce an image.

6 to 12 PPM

4

Line printer

Prints lines at a time instead of single

 

characters.

300 to 600 LPM

5

Plotter

Produces drawings or graphs through

 

pens which are filled with different colours.

 

( CPS: Characters Per Second;   PPM: Pages Per Minutes;   LPM : Lines Per Minute)

MEMORY OF THE COMPUTER

 

Memory or  storage capacity is one of the important components of a computer.  Any storage unit of a computer system is classified on the basis of the following criteria:

 

1.  Access time: This is the time required to locate and retrieve stored data from the storage unit in response to program instructions.

 

2.  Storage capacity: It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit.

 

3.   Cost per bit of storage.

 

Units of memory: The computer stores a character in the storage cells with binary (0,1) mechanism. Thus the basic unit of memory is  a  bit (binary digit 0,1).  To store a character, a computer requires 8 bits or 1 byte.   This  is called the  word length‖ of the storage unit.  Hence the storage capacity of the computer is measured in the number of words it can store and is expressed in terms of bytes.   The different units of measurement are

 

8 Bits               =      1 Byte

 

210  (or) 1024  Bytes   = 1 Kilo Byte (KB)

 

210  (or)1024 KB         = 1 Mega Byte (MB)

 

210  (or)1024 MB        = 1 Gega Byte (GB) Conversion :

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange.This code has given alphabets like some numbers which can be converted to Binary form. A- 65 …….Z – 90     and    a – 97  ………. z – 121

By using these codes the alphabets can be converted to digital  & hence to Binary form.

 

Types of Memory : A computer memory is of two types

 

1. Primary Memory ( Internal storage)        2. Secondary Memory ( External storage)

 

Primary Memory :   Primary memory is also called internal memory and is an important part of a computer. It is the main area in a computer where the data is stored. The stored data can be recalled instantly and correctly whenever desired. This memory can be quickly accessed by the CPU for reading or storing information. Primary memory is further classified into two types:

 Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read- Only Memory (ROM ) RAM:

RAM is also known as read/write memory as information can be read from and written onto it. RAM is a place in a computer that holds instructions for the computer, its programs and the data. The CPU can directly access the data from RAM almost immediately. However, the storage of data and instructions in RAM is temporary, till the time the computer is running. It disappears from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. i.e it is volatile memory.

 ROM:It is called Read-only memory as information can only be read from and not written or changed onto ROM. ROM is the ‗built-in' memory of a computer. It stores some basic input output instructions put by the manufacturer to operate the computer. The storage of data and instructions in ROM is permanent. It does not depend on the power supply. i.e it is non-volatile memory.

 

Secondary memory: The primary memory which is faster (and hence expensive) is generally not sufficient for large storage of data.  As  a result, additional memory, called the auxiliary‖ or secondary memory is used.  It is also referred as backup storage as it  is used to store large volume of data on a permanent basis which can be transferred to the primary memory whenever required for processing. Data are stored in secondary storage in the same binary codes as in the main (primary memory) storage. Some of  the devices of secondary storages are  Floppy Disk, Hard Disk, CD-ROM, DVD and Flash drive.

 

1. Floppy Disk: It is also referred as Diskette: and is made of  flexible Vinyl material.  It has a small hole  on  one  side  called  Right  protect  notch,   Which  protects  accidental  writing/deleting  the information from the disk. There is a hole in the centre through which the spindle of drive unit rotates the disk.   The disks are available in two sizes of 5.25 and 3.5 inches and these could be either low- density or high-density floppies.   Storage capacity of floppies are measured in kilobytes (KB) and

megabytes (MB).  The details about the storage capacities of the floppies are presented below:

 

Floppy Disk

Storage Capacity

Size (Diameter)

Low Density

360 KB

5.25 inches

High Density

1.2 MB

5.25 inches

High Density

1.44 MB

3.5 inches

Extended

2.8 MB

3.5 inches

 

2. Hard Disk:   The hard disk can hold more information than the floppy disk and the retrieval of information from hard disk is faster when compared to floppies or tapes. A hard disk is fixed inside the CPU and its capacity ranges from 20 MB onwards. The hard disk is made up of a collection of discs (one below the other) known as platters on which the data is recorded. These platters are coated with magnetic material.  It is less sensitive to external environmental disorders and hence the storage in hard disk is safe.  A small hard disk might be as much as 25 times larger than a floppy disk. Storage Capacity of hard disks varies from 20 MB to several Gega bytes like 80GB, 160GB.

3.  CD-ROM: CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk–Read Only Memory. It is used to store a wide variety of information. Its main advantage is that it is portable and can hold a large amount of data.. The storage capacity of most CD-ROMs is approximately 650 MB or 700 MB.

CD-ROMs have the following variations:

 

(i) CD-R(Compact disc Recordable): Data can be written onto it just once. The stored data can be read. Data once written onto it cannot be erased.

(ii) CD-RW(Compact disc Rewritable): It is also called erasable CD. Data once written onto it can be erased to write or record new information many times.To use a CD-ROM, a device called CD drive is needed.

 

 

4. DVD: DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc. It is similar to a CD-ROM, except that it can store larger amounts of data. The storage capacity of a DVD is at least 4.7MB. DVDs that can store up to

17GBs are also available. Because of their capacity, DVDs are generally used to store a very large multimedia presentations and movies that combine high quality sound and graphics.

 

5. Flash Drive: It is a small, portable device that can be used to store, access and transfer data. Due to its small size, it is commonly called Pen drive. It is also called USB drive. We can read, write, copy, delete, and move data from computer to pen drive or pen drive to computer. It comes in various storage capacities of 2GB, 4GB, 8GB etc. It is popular because it is easy to use and small enough to be carried in a pocket. This device is plugged into the USB port of the computer and the computer automatically detects this device.

 

HARDWARE and SOFTWARE

 

 

Hardware: The physical components of the computer are known as Hardware. It refers to the objects that we can actually touch.

 

Ex:   input and output devices, processors, circuits and the cables.

 

Software: Software is a program or set of instructions that causes the Hardware to function in a desired way.  The basic difference between the Hardware and Software is just the same as that exists between TV and TV studio.   Without TV studio (software) from where the programs are telecast, the TV (Hardware) is a dead machine.

 There are five categories of software.  They are:

 

1.   Operating System            2. Translators           3. Utility programs         4. Application programs

 

5. General purpose programs

 

 1.   Operating System (OS) : The   software that manages the resources of a computer system and schedules its operation is called Operating system. The operating system acts as interface between the hardware and the user programs and facilitates the execution of programs.

 

Generally the OS acts as an interface between the user and the Hardware of the computer. i.e It is a bridge between the user and the  Hardware.

The User interface provided by the OS can be character based or graphical.

 

CUI  --  Character  user Interface

 

GUI  --  Graphical user Interface

 

CUI  It is operated with keyboard only.  Ex: MS-DOS,   UNIX

 

GUI :   The system can be operated with mouse and keyboard.   Ex: Windows 95,  Windows XP etc

 

·     Disk Operating System (DOS):  It was developed as early as 1980 by Bill Gates at the age of 19.  It is suited  for personal computers. Dos is a single user and single task operating system

 

 

·     WINDOWS :     It works with DOS and it supports single user and multitask system.   Irequires a powerful PC with a minimum RAM of 8 MB .

 

 

·     UNIX AND XENIX It is suited for multi-user and multi-task system

 

 

2.   Translators  : Computers can understand instructions only when they are written in their own language the machine language . Therefore, a program written in  any other language should be translated into machine language The software that translates‖ the instructions of different languages is known as translators .

There are two types of translators. They are  compilers and  Interpreters

 

A Compiler checks the entire user written program (known as the source program) and if it is error free, produces a complete program in machine language (known as object program).  The source program is retained for possible modifications and corrections and the object program is loaded into the computer for execution.  If the source program contains errors, the compilers produce a list of errors athe end of the execution of the program. i.e  a compiler translates the whole program before execution. An interpreter does a similar job but in a different style. The interpreter translates one statement at a time and if it is error free, executes.  This continues till the last statement.  Thus an interpreter translates or executes the first instruction before it goes to the second, while a compiler translates the whole program before execution.

 

The major difference between compiler and interpreter is

 

1.   Error correction  is  very much simpler in  the case of interpreter as  it  translates  the statements in stages.  The compiler produces an error list of the entire program at the end.

2.   Interpreter takes more time for the execution of the program compared to compilers as it translates one statement at a time

 

Programming Languages:  There are three types of programming languages.

 

 

1.   Machine Languages: Computers respond only to machine language.  This language is in terms of binary codes (0,1).  i.e. all programs should be written with these codes, which is difficult, time consuming  and  leading  to  errors  while  writing  the  programs.  There  is  no  unique  standard machine language. Rather there are many machine languages. These are machine dependent. These are referred  as the first generation languages.

 

2.   AssemblLanguages  :  It  uses mnemonic  codes  rather than  numeric  code(as  in  machine languages). Ex. Add or A is used as a symbol for addition.  It requires translators to convert into machine language.  Like machine language, writing program in assembly language is also  time consuming. These are also machine dependent.

 

3.   High Level Languages (HLL): These are referred as problem oriented languages (POL). These are referred as third generation languages. The advantages of these languages are

 

·    The  high level languages are convenient for writing programs as they can be written without any codes.  These languages follow rules likeEnglishlanguage.

 

 

·    Because of their English like nature, less time is required to write a program.

 

 

·    They are machine independent.  A program written in any HLL can be run on computers of different types without any modifications.

 

Several High Level Languages which are in common use: 

  1. FORTRAN :   FORmula TRANslation
  2. COBOL :       Common Business Oriented Language
  3.  BASIC :        Beginner's All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
  4.  PROLOG:     PROgramming in LOGic
  5.  ALGOL :     ALGOrithmic Language

 

3.  Utility Programs: These are pre-written programs supplied by the manufacturer for maintaining day to day activities of computer system.

 

Example: COPY, SORT, MAILING, virus scanning software etc.,

 

 

4. Application Programs: These are user written programs to do a specific job which can be changed to meet the individual needs.  These programs are written in different languages such as BASIC or C or busing database packages like dBASE, OracleExample:  Payroll,   Billing,  Railway Reservation etc.


5. General Purpose Packages: These packages are developed to suit the needs of  research workers scientists in different fields.  These packages are categorized as :

 

 

i) Data Analysis    ii) Word Processing  iii) Spread Shee iv) Graphics an v) Databases

 

Data Analysis

 

Ex:   SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science), MSTAT,      MICROSTAT,    GENSTAT SAS etc.

Word Processing

Ex: WORD PERFECT, WORDSTAR,  MS-Word,   CHIRATOR,  NORTON EDITOR etc.

 

Spread Sheet

 

Ex: LOTUS,   Qpro,  VP-PLANNER,  SYMPHONY,  MS-Excel  etc.

 

Graphics

 

Ex: LOTUS,   STORY-BOARD,  POWER-POINT etc.

 

Databases       

 

Ex:  dBASE,  FOX-BASE,  FOX-PRO, ORACLE, MS-Access  etc.

 

 

Functions of  Operating System Today most operating systems perform the following important functions :

 

 

1.   Processor management : It manages the assignment of processor to different tasks being performed by the computer system.

 

2.   Memory management : It manages the allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programmes as well as user programmes and data.

 

3.   Input / Output management : It manages the co-ordination and assignment of different Input and Output devices while one or more programmes are executed.

 

 4.   File management : It allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other file manipulation routines.

 

5.   Establishment and enforcement of a priority system : It determines and maintains the order in which jobs are to be executed in the computer system.

 

6.   Interpretation of commands and instructions.

 

 

7.   Facilitates  easy communication between the computer system and the computer operator.

 

Classification of Computers

 

 

Computers are classified according to the storage capacity, speed and the purpose for which they are developed.  These can be classified into three types:

 

1.   Analog Computes       2. Digital Computers          3. Hybrid Computers

 

1. Analog computers: They operate by measuring instead of counting. The name (derived from greek word analog) denotes that the computer functions by establishing similarities between the two quantities.  They are powerful tools for solving differential equations.

 

2.   Digital Computers: These computers operate by counting.  All quantities are  expressed as discrete digits or numbers.   These are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and manipulations of data.

 

3.   Hybrid Computers: Computers which combine the features of analog and digital computers are known as Hybrid computers.

A majority of the computers that are in use are digital.  These computers were essentially developed for computations.  Later, the developments in the computers led to the use of digital computers in variety of applications.  Depending on the use of applications, the  digital computers are classified into   1) Special Purpose Computers  and   2) General Purpose Computers

 

1.   Special Purpose Computers:  These are developed with a specific purpose.  Some of the areas where these computers are being used are soil testing, drip irrigation, medical scanning, traffic signals, spacecraft, rocket technology etc.,

 

2.   General Purpose Computers: These are developed to meet the requirements of several areas such as simulation, solving mathematical equations, payroll and personnel database. These computers are available in different sizes and capabilities and are further classified (based on memory, speed, storage) as follows.

 

a) Super Computers       b) Mainframe Computers       c) Mini Computers     d) Micro Computers

 

 

a)   Super Computers: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers.  These are used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines such as electronics, weather forecasting  etc.,.     The  first  super  computer  was  developed  in  U.S.A.  by  CRAY computers.   In India the indigenous super computer was  developed under the name Param.

b)   Mainframe Computers: They also have large storag and high computing speed (but relatively lower than the super computers).  They are used in applications like weather forecasting, space applications etc., they support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously, but are expensive

c) Mini Computers: It is   a medium sized computer with moderate cost, available indigenously  and  used  for  large  volume  applications.     It  can  serve  multi-usersimultaneously

 

d)   Micro Computers:  A micro computer is the smallest general purpose processing system.Micro  computers    are  also  referred  as  personal  computers(PC).     These  are  self contained units and usually developed for use by one person at a time but can be linked to very large systems. They are cheap, easy to use even at homes and can be read for variety of applications from small to medium range.  These are available in three models:

 

1.  PC : Personal Computer

 

2.  PC-XT : PC with Extended Technology

 

3.   PC-AT : PC with Advanced Technology


PERSONAL COMPUTERS

 

Personal Computer:  A personal compute